Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, March 2000, Pages 24-29

Congress Watch

Mid-Term Report Card on 106th Congress Shows Mixed Results

By Shirl McArthur

To prepare the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs,’s attached mid-term report card on members of the 106th Congress, six issues were chosen to rate the members. However, the issues for members of the Senate and for members of the House of Representatives are not the same.

The limited number of issues probably means that it would be premature to make the magazine’s current nominations for its Halls of Fame and Shame permanent. However, in each house there are some members who already merit honorable mention and, conversely, there are some who bear watching as likely candidates for the Hall of Shame.

Seven senators received marks in three of the positive columns and none of the negative columns. They are Senators Spencer Abraham (R-MI), Robert Byrd (D-WV), the late John Chafee (R-RI, since replaced by his son, Lincoln), Larry Craig (R-ID), Patrick Leahy (D-VT), Strom Thurmond (R-SC), and Paul Wellstone (D-MN). At the other end of the Senate spectrum, two senators, Connie Mack (R-FL) and Arlen Specter (R-PA), figured in both the negative columns and none of the positive ones.

In the House, 12 representatives received marks in at least two of the positive columns and none of the negative ones. They are Representatives David Bonior (D-MI), John Conyers (D-MI), John Dingell (D-MI), Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D-IL), Dennis Kucinich (D-OH), Cynthia McKinney (D-GA), George Miller (D-CA), Jim Moran (D-VA), Nick Rahall (D-WV), John Sununu (R-NH), Maxine Waters (D-CA), and Mel Watt (D-NC).

House Minority Whip Bonior, the second-ranking House Democrat, merits special mention as the only one figuring in all three of the positive columns. At the other end of the House’s Middle East-related spectrum 21 representatives showed up in all three of the negative columns and none of the positive ones. They are Representatives Howard Berman (D-CA), Joseph Crowley (D-NY), Peter Deutsch (D-FL), Eliot Engel (D-NY), Michael Forbes (D-NY), Bob Franks (R-NJ), Martin Frost (D-TX), Gene Green (D-TX), Luis Gutierrez (D-IL), Stephen Horn (R-CA), Sue Kelly (R-NY), Rick Lazio (R-NY), Frank LoBiondo (R-NJ), Nita Lowey (D-NY), Michael McNulty (D-NY), Jerrold Nadler (D-NY), Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL), Jim Saxton (R-NJ), Bob Schaffer (R-CO), Brad Sherman (D-CA), and Anthony Weiner (D-NY). Ros-Lehtinen bears special opprobrium as the only co-sponsor of all five of the bills concerning Jerusalem (see below).

SENATE: The Good...

A. Pollard. In January 1999, Intelligence Committee Chairman Richard Shelby (R-AL) and Ranking Minority Member Bob Kerrey (D-NE), joined by 58 other senators, wrote to President William Clinton strongly opposing any commutation of the life sentence given to convicted Israeli spy Jonathan Pollard. A plus in the A column indicates a signer of the letter opposing release of Pollard.

B. Palestinian Statehood. In March, both houses passed by a huge majority resolutions expressing opposition to the unilateral declaration of a Palestinian state. Only five senators did not co-sponsor the resolution, and two others spoke out on the floor against the resolution’s one-sided nature. A plus in the B column indicates one of these seven who did not oppose a Palestinian state.

C. Jerusalem. In July, 84 senators signed a letter to Clinton objecting to his exercising the waiver provision of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995. A plus in the C column indicates one of the 16 senators who did not want the U.S. Embassy moved to Jerusalem before the city’s final status is agreed in Palestinian-Israeli negotiations.

D. Anti-Intolerance. Also in the summer, resolutions were introduced, S. Res. 133 in the Senate, condemning anti-Muslim intolerance and discrimination and recognizing the contributions of American Muslims. While the resolutions were not brought to a vote, the five senators who co-sponsored this pro-religious tolerance resolution are indicated by a plus in column D.

...and the Bad

E. Anti-Palestinian Incitement. In March, four senators signed a joint House-Senate letter to Clinton reiterating Israeli Lobby charges of a “systematic use of anti-Semitic language in the Palestinian media and textbooks.” An X in column E indicates a signer of this Israel lobby-originated letter.

F. UNGA Res. 181. In May, five sentors, later joined by 12 additional co-sponsors, introduced a resolution, S. Con. Res. 36, saying, among other things, that any attempt to resurrect U.N. General Assembly Resolution 181 (the original U.N. partition plan providing 47 percent of the Mandate of Palestine for a Palestinian state) would be regarded by the U.S. as an attempt to sabotage the peace process. An X in column F indicates a co-sponsor of this crude attempt to justify Israel’s refusal to withdraw to the borders assigned it (53 percent of Palestine) by the U.N. resolution.

HOUSE: The Good...

1. Palestinian Statehood. In March, the House passed the Anti-Palestinian Statehood resolution, H.Con.Res. 24, by a vote of 280 for, 24 against, and 2 “present,” with 28 not voting. A plus in column 1 indicates one of those 26 voting against or present (not in support of) this anti-Palestinian resolution.

2. Anti-Secret Evidence. In June, Representatives Bonior, Campbell, Conyers, and Barr introduced the Secret Evidence Repeal Act, H.R. 2121, seeking to end the use of “secret evidence” in immigration cases under the pretext of combatting terrorism. To date, 54 representatives have joined the original four in co-sponsoring the bill. A plus in column 2 indicates one of those 58 seeking to overturn this act, which so far has been used only against Muslim Arab Americans, or their spouses or Christian Arab associates.

3. Anti-Intolerance. To date the House version of the resolution condemning anti-Muslim intolerance and discrimination and recognizing the contributions of American Muslims, H.Con.Res. 174, still has only its original two co-sponsors, Reps. Bonior and Davis, joined later by House Minority Leader Richard Gephardt. A plus in column 3 indicates one of those three.

...and the Bad

4. Condemning Palestinians. The 50 representatives who signed the Israel lobby’s joint House-Senate letter to Clinton protesting the “systematic use of anti-Semitic language in the Palestinian media and textbooks” are indicated by an X in column 4.

5. Jerusalem. During July and August, five different House bills were introduced, H.R.s 2515, 2529, 2584, 2768, and 2785, that would effectively reinforce Israel’s claim over Jerusalem as Israel’s capital without awaiting the results of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations. Although no more than 59 representatives have co-sponsored any one of these bills, a total of 98 have co-sponsored one or more of them. An X in column 5 indicates one of these 98.

6. Anti-Arab Aid. In November, Clinton signed H.R. 1175, which requires the secretary of state to continue to raise with the governments of Syria, Lebanon, and the Palestinian Authority the matter of missing Israeli soldiers who also happen to be U.S. citizens. The version as signed urges the president, in deciding on U.S policies toward these Arab countries, “to take into account their willingness” to help find and return these soldiers. An X in column 6 indicates one of the 101 co-sponsors of this bill to create obstacles to providing future aid to Arab parties to the peace process. 


Shirl McArthur, a retired foreign service officer, is a consultant in the Washington, DC area.

SIDEBAR

Hall of Fame Hall of Shame

Senate Nominees Pro-Israel PAC Senate Nominees Pro-Israel PAC

Donations (Career) Donations (Career)

Spencer Abraham (R-MI) $ 15,000 Connie Mack (R-FL) $105,422

Robert Byrd (D-WV) 67,500 Arlen Specter (R-PA) 366,123

John Chafee (R-RI) 0

Larry Craig (R-IL) 20,750 House Nominees Pro-Israel PAC

Patrick Leahy (D-VT) 118,200 Donations (Career)

Strom Thurmond (R-SC) 0 Howard Berman (D-CA) 46,750

Paul Wellstone (D-MN) 5,700 Joseph Crowley (D-NY) 500

Peter Deutsch (D-FL) 28,241

House Nominees Pro-Israel PAC Eliot Engel (D-NY) 81,200

Donations (Career) Michael Forbes (D-NY) 15,000

David Bonior (D-MI) 23,000 Bob Franks (R-NJ) 3,500

John Conyers (D-MI) 2,500 Martin Frost (D-TX) 124,864

John Dingell (D-MI) 9,500 Gene Green (D-TX) 0

Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D-IL) 1,000 Luis Gutierrez (D-IL) 25,811

Dennis Kucinich (D-OH) 13,500 Stephen Horn (R-CA) 0

Cynthia McKinney (D-GA) 7,250 Sue Kelly (R-NY) 750

George Miller (D-CA) 1,250 Rick Lazio (R-NY) 13,500

Jim Moran (D-VA) 0 Frank Lobiondo (R-NJ) 4,250

Nick Rahall (D-WV) 0 Nita Lowey (D-NY) 81,588

John Sununu (R-NH) 0 Michael McNulty (D-NY) 8,500

Maxine Walters (D-CA) 0 Jerrold Nadler (D-NY) 12,000

Mel Watt (D-NC) 4,777 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL) 32,740

Jim Saxton (R-NJ) 41,850

Bob Schaffer (R-CO) 0

Brad Sherman (D-CA) 26,280

Anthony Weiner (D-NY) 0

In case anyone thinks it doesn’t pay a congressman well to follow Israel lobby instructions, here are some examples of what happens when you vote against the lobby (first column) or for it (second column). Clearly, it pays. But why the inconsistencies, with some Hall of Famers receiving money from PACs directed by the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), Israel’s principal lobby, and some Hall of Shamers receiving nothing?

There are a lot of possible reasons. Some members of Congress have pledged to their constituents that they won’t take money from PACs, at all. It doen’t mean, however, they didn’t earn lots of “soft money” by their actions on behalf of Israel, or that they didn’t get lots of large contributions from pro-Israel individuals in their areas. It’s just that we can’t document it.

And why are there names in the “Hall of Fame” who nevertheless have received generous funding from AIPAC’s PACs? Sometimes it represents a mid-career switch in voting patterns—perhaps because they belatedly saw how unquestioning support of Israel was hurting peace, the United States, and even moderates in Israel itself. Or sometimes close to the end of their service incumbents start voting from considerations of conscience rather than career. In any case, support for anyone in the Hall of Fame can’t go wrong, just as support for any opponent to those in the Hall of Shame can only yield a change for the better. —Hugh Galford, Richard B. Curtiss

REPORT CARD FOR THE FIRST SESSION OF THE 106TH CONGRESS

REPRESENTATIVES: Positives Negatives

1 2 3 4 5 6

Abercrombie, Neil (D-HI) X X

Ackerman, Gary L. (D-NY) X

Aderholt, Robert B. (R-AL)

Allen, Thomas H. (D-ME)

Andrews, Robert E. (D-NJ) X X

Archer, Bill (R-TX)

Armey, Richard K. (R-TX)

Baca, Joe (D-CA)

Bachus, Spencer (R-AL) X

Baird, Brian (D-WA)

Baker, Richard H. (R-LA) X

Baldacci, John Elias (D-ME)

Baldwin, Tammy (D-WI) +

Ballenger, Cass (R-NC) X

Barcia, James A. (D-MI) +

Barr, Bob (R-GA) +

Barrett, Bill (R-NE)

Barrett, Thomas M. (D-WI) +

Bartlett, Roscoe G. (R-MD)

Barton, Joe (R-TX) X

Bass, Charles F. (R-NH)

Bateman, Herbert H. (R-VA)

Becerra, Xavier (D-CA) +

Bentsen, Ken (D-TX) X

Bereuter, Doug (R-NE) X

Berkley, Shelley (D-NV) X X

Berman, Howard L. (D-CA) X X X

Berry, Marion (D-AR)

Biggert, Judy (R-IL)

Bilbray, Brian P. (R-CA) X X

Bilirakis, Michael (R-FL)

Bishop, Sanford D., Jr. (D-GA)

Blagojevich, Rod R. (D-IL) X X

Bliley, Tom (R-VA)

Blumenauer, Earl (D-OR)

Blunt, Roy (R-MO) X X

Boehlert, Sherwood L. (R-NY) X

Boehner, John A. (R-OH)

Bonilla, Henry (R-TX)

Bonior, David E. (D-MI) + + +

Bono, Mary (R-CA)

Borski, Robert A. (D-PA)

Boswell, Leonard L. (D-IA)

Boucher, Rick (D-VA)

Boyd, Allen (D-FL)

Brady, Kevin (R-TX)

Brady, Robert A. (D-PA) X

Brown, Corrine (D-FL)

Brown, Sherrod (D-OH)

Bryant, Ed (R-TN) X

Burr, Richard (R-NC)

Burton, Dan (R-IN) X X

Buyer, Steve (R-IN)

Callahan, Sonny (R-AL)

Calvert, Ken (R-CA) X

Camp, Dave (R-MI) X

Campbell, Tom (R-CA) + + X

Canady, Charles T. (R-FL)

Cannon, Chris (R-UT)

Capps, Lois (D-CA) X

Capuano, Michael E. (D-MA) + X

Cardin, Benjamin L. (D-MD) X

Carson, Julia (D-IN)

Castle, Michael N. (R-DE)

Chabot, Steve (R-OH)

Chambliss, Saxby (R-GA)

Chenoweth-Hage, Helen (R-ID)

Christensen, Donna MC (D-VI)

Clay, William (Bill) (D-MO) + + X

Clayton, Eva M. (D-NC)

Clement, Bob (D-TN)

Clyburn, James E. (D-SC)

Coble, Howard (R-NC)

Coburn, Tom A. (R-OK)

Collins, Mac (R-GA)

Combest, Larry (R-TX)

Condit, Gary A. (D-CA)

Conyers, John, Jr. (D-MI) + +

Cook, Merrill (R-UT) + X

Cooksey, John (R-LA)

Costello, Jerry F. (D-IL)

Cox, Christopher (R-CA)

Coyne, William J. (D-PA)

Cramer, Robert E. (Bud), Jr. (D-AL)

Crane, Philip M. (R-IL)

Crowley, Joseph (D-NY) X X X

Cubin, Barbara (R-WY)

Cummings, Elijah E. (D-MD)

Cunningham, Randy “Duke” (R-CA)

Danner, Pat (D-MO)

Davis, Danny K. (D-IL)

Davis, Jim (D-FL)

Davis, Thomas M. (R-VA) +

Deal, Nathan (R-GA)

DeFazio, Peter A. (D-OR)

DeGette, Diana (D-CO)

Delahunt, William D. (D-MA)

DeLauro, Rosa L. (D-CT)

DeLay, Tom (R-TX) X

DeMint, Jim (R-SC)

Deutsch, Peter (D-FL) X X X

Diaz-Balart, Lincoln (R-FL) X X

Dickey, Jay (R-AR)

Dicks, Norman D. (D-WA)

Dingell, John D. (D-MI) + +

Dixon, Julian C. (D-CA) X X

Doggett, Lloyd (D-TX)

Dooley, Calvin M. (D-CA)

Doolittle, John T. (R-CA)

Doyle, Michael F. (D-PA)

Dreier, David (R-CA) X X

Duncan, John J., Jr. (R-TN)

Dunn, Jennifer (R-WA) X

Edwards, Chet (D-TX)

Ehlers, Vernon J. (R-MI)

Ehrlich, Robert L., Jr. (R-MD) X

Emerson, Jo Ann (R-MO)

Engel, Eliot L. (D-NY) X X X

English, Phil (R-PA) X

Eshoo, Anna G. (D-CA)

Etheridge, Bob (D-NC)

Evans, Lane (D-IL)

Everett, Terry (R-AL)

Ewing, Thomas W. (R-IL)

Faleomavaega, Eni F. H. (D-AS) X

Farr, Sam (D-CA) +

Fattah, Chaka (D-PA)

Filner, Bob (D-CA) +

Fletcher, Ernie (R-KY) X

Foley, Mark (R-FL) X X

Forbes, Michael P. (D-NY) X X X

Ford, Harold E., Jr. (D-TN) X X

Fossella, Vito (R-NY) X X

Fowler, Tillie K. (R-FL) X

Frank, Barney (D-MA) + X

Franks, Bob (R-NJ) X X X

Frelinghuysen, Rodney P. (R-NJ)

Frost, Martin (D-TX) X X X

Gallegly, Elton (R-CA)

Ganske, Greg (R-IA)

Gejdenson, Sam (D-CT) X

Gekas, George W. (R-PA)

Gephardt, Richard A. (D-MO) + X

Gibbons, Jim (R-NV)

Gilchrest, Wayne T. (R-MD)

Gillmor, Paul E. (R-OH)

Gilman, Benjamin A. (R-NY) X

Gonzalez, Charles A. (D-TX)

Goode, Virgil H., Jr. (D-VA)

Goodlatte, Bob (R-VA)

Goodling, William F. (R-PA)

Gordon, Bart (D-TN) X

Goss, Porter J. (R-FL) X

Graham, Lindsey O. (R-SC)

Granger, Kay (R-TX) X X

Green, Gene (D-TX) X X X

Green, Mark (R-WI) X

Greenwood, James C. (R-PA)

Gutierrez, Luis V. (D-IL) + X X X

Gutknecht, Gil (R-MN)

Hall, Ralph M. (D-TX)

Hall, Tony P. (D-OH) X

Hansen, James V. (R-UT)

Hastert, J. Dennis (R-IL)

Hastings, Alcee L. (D-FL) + X

Hastings, Doc (R-WA)

Hayes, Robin (R-NC)

Hayworth, J. D. (R-AZ) X X

Hefley, Joel (R-CO)

Herger, Wally (R-CA)

Hill, Baron P. (D-IN)

Hill, Rick (R-MT)

Hilleary, Van (R-TN)

Hilliard, Earl F. (D-AL)

Hinchey, Maurice D. (D-NY) + X X

Hinojosa, Rubén (D-TX)

Hobson, David L. (R-OH)

Hoeffel, Joseph M. (D-PA) X

Hoekstra, Peter (R-MI)

Holden, Tim (D-PA) X X

Holt, Rush D. (D-NJ) + X

Hooley, Darlene (D-OR)

Horn, Stephen (R-CA) X X X

Hostettler, John N. (R-IN)

Houghton, Amo (R-NY) +

Hoyer, Steny H. (D-MD) X

Hulshof, Kenny C. (R-MO)

Hunter, Duncan (R-CA)

Hutchinson, Asa (R-AR)

Hyde, Henry J. (R-IL) X

Inslee, Jay (D-WA)

Isakson, Johnny (R-GA)

Istook, Ernest J., Jr. (R-OK)

Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. (D-IL) + +

Jackson-Lee, Sheila (D-TX) +

Jefferson, William J. (D-LA)

Jenkins, William L. (R-TN)

John, Christopher (D-LA) +

Johnson, Eddie Bernice (D-TX) +

Johnson, Nancy L. (R-CT)

Johnson, Sam (R-TX)

Jones, Stephanie Tubbs (D-OH)

Jones, Walter B. (R-NC)

Kanjorski, Paul E. (D-PA) +

Kaptur, Marcy (D-OH) +

Kasich, John R. (R-OH)

Kelly, Sue W. (R-NY) X X X

Kennedy, Patrick J. (D-RI) +

Kildee, Dale E. (D-MI) +

Kilpatrick, Carolyn C. (D-MI) + X

Kind, Ron (D-WI)

King, Peter T. (R-NY) + X

Kingston, Jack (R-GA)

Kleczka, Gerald D. (D-WI)

Klink, Ron (D-PA)

Knollenberg, Joe (R-MI) + X

Kolbe, Jim (R-AZ)

Kucinich, Dennis J. (D-OH) + +

Kuykendall, Steven T. (R-CA) X

LaFalce, John J. (D-NY)

LaHood, Ray (R-IL) +

Lampson, Nick (D-TX) + X

Lantos, Tom (D-CA) X

Largent, Steve (R-OK)

Larson, John B. (D-CT)

Latham, Tom (R-IA)

LaTourette, Steven C. (R-OH) X

Lazio, Rick (R-NY) X X X

Leach, James A. (R-IA)

Lee, Barbara (D-CA) +

Levin, Sander M. (D-MI) + X

Lewis, Jerry (R-CA) X

Lewis, John (D-GA) +

Lewis, Ron (R-KY)

Linder, John (R-GA) X

Lipinski, William O. (D-IL) +

LoBiondo, Frank A. (R-NJ) X X X

Lofgren, Zoe (D-CA) X

Lowey, Nita M. (D-NY) X X X

Lucas, Frank D. (R-OK) X X

Lucas, Ken (D-KY)

Luther, Bill (D-MN) +

McCarthy, Carolyn (D-NY) X

McCarthy, Karen (D-MO)

McCollum, Bill (R-FL) X X

McCrery, Jim (R-LA)

McDermott, Jim (D-WA) +

McGovern, James P. (D-MA) X

McHugh, John M. (R-NY) X

McInnis, Scott (R-CO)

McIntosh, David M. (R-IN)

McIntyre, Mike (D-NC)

McKeon, Howard P. “Buck” (R-CA)

McKinney, Cynthia A. (D-GA) + +

McNulty, Michael R. (D-NY) X X X

Maloney, Carolyn B. (D-NY) X X

Maloney, James H. (D-CT) X X

Manzullo, Donald A. (R-IL)

Markey, Edward J. (D-MA)

Martinez, Matthew G. (D-CA)

Mascara, Frank (D-PA) X

Matsui, Robert T. (D-CA)

Meehan, Martin T. (D-MA) X

Meek, Carrie P. (D-FL) X

Meeks, Gregory W. (D-NY) +

Menendez, Robert (D-NJ) X

Metcalf, Jack (R-WA)

Mica, John L. (R-FL) X

Millender-McDonald, Juanita (D-CA)

Miller, Dan (R-FL) X

Miller, Gary G. (R-CA) X

Miller, George (D-CA) + +

Minge, David (D-MN)

Mink, Patsy T. (D-HI) +

Moakley, John Joseph (D-MA)

Mollohan, Alan B. (D-WV)

Moore, Dennis (D-KS) X X

Moran, James P. (D-VA) + +

Moran, Jerry (R-KS)

Morella, Constance A. (R-MD) X

Murtha, John P. (D-PA) +

Myrick, Sue Wilkins (R-NC) X

Nadler, Jerrold (D-NY) X X X

Napolitano, Grace F. (D-CA)

Neal, Richard E. (D-MA)

Nethercutt, George R., Jr. (R-WA) X

Ney, Robert W. (R-OH) +

Northup, Anne M. (R-KY) X X

Norton, Eleanor Holmes (D-DC) +

Norwood, Charlie (R-GA) X

Nussle, Jim (R-IA)

Oberstar, James L. (D-MN)

Obey, David R. (D-WI)

Olver, John W. (D-MA) X

Ortiz, Solomon P. (D-TX)

Ose, Doug (R-CA) X

Owens, Major R. (D-NY) X

Oxley, Michael G. (R-OH)

Packard, Ron (R-CA)

Pallone, Frank, Jr. (D-NJ) X X

Pascrell, Bill, Jr. (D-NJ)

Pastor, Ed (D-AZ) +

Paul, Ron (R-TX) +

Payne, Donald M. (D-NJ) +

Pease, Edward A. (R-IN)

Pelosi, Nancy (D-CA) +

Peterson, Collin C. (D-MN)

Peterson, John E. (R-PA)

Petri, Thomas E. (R-WI) +

Phelps, David D. (D-IL) X

Pickering, Charles W. “Chip” (R-MS) X

Pickett, Owen B. (D-VA)

Pitts, Joseph R. (R-PA) X

Pombo, Richard W. (R-CA)

Pomeroy, Earl (D-ND)

Porter, John Edward (R-IL) X X

Portman, Rob (R-OH)

Price, David E. (D-NC) +

Pryce, Deborah (R-OH) X

Quinn, Jack (R-NY) X

Radanovich, George (R-CA) +

Rahall, Nick J., II (D-WV) + +

Ramstad, Jim (R-MN)

Rangel, Charles B. (D-NY) X X

Regula, Ralph (R-OH)

Reyes, Silvestre (D-TX) X X

Reynolds, Thomas M. (R-NY) X

Riley, Bob (R-AL)

Rivers, Lynn N. (D-MI) + + X X

Rodriguez, Ciro D. (D-TX) + X

Roemer, Tim (D-IN)

Rogan, James E. (R-CA) X

Rogers, Harold (R-KY)

Rohrabacher, Dana (R-CA) +

Romero-Barceló, Carlos A. (D-PR)

Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana (R-FL) X X X

Rothman, Steven R. (D-NJ) X

Roukema, Marge (R-NJ) X

Roybal-Allard, Lucille (D-CA)

Royce, Edward R. (R-CA)

Rush, Bobby L. (D-IL)

Ryan, Paul (R-WI) X

Ryun, Jim (R-KS) X

Sabo, Martin Olav (D-MN)

Salmon, Matt (R-AZ) X X

Sanchez, Loretta (D-CA)

Sanders, Bernard (I-VT)

Sandlin, Max (D-TX)

Sanford, Marshall “Mark” (R-SC)

Sawyer, Tom (D-OH) +

Saxton, Jim (R-NJ) X X X

Scarborough, Joe (R-FL) X

Schaffer, Bob (R-CO) X X X

Schakowsky, Janice D.(D-IL) + X X X

Scott, Robert C. (D-VA) +

Sensenbrenner, F. James, Jr. (R-WI)

Serrano, José E. (D-NY)

Sessions, Pete (R-TX) X X

Shadegg, John B. (R-AZ)

Shaw, E. Clay, Jr. (R-FL) X

Shays, Christopher (R-CT) +

Sherman, Brad (D-CA) X X X

Sherwood, Don (R-PA)

Shimkus, John (R-IL) X X

Shows, Ronnie (D-MS) X X

Shuster, Bud (R-PA)

Simpson, Michael K. (R-ID) X

Sisisky, Norman (D-VA) X

Skeen, Joe (R-NM)

Skelton, Ike (D-MO)

Slaughter, Louise McIntosh (D-NY)

Smith, Adam (D-WA)

Smith, Christopher H. (R-NJ) X X

Smith, Lamar S. (R-TX)

Smith, Nick (R-MI) X

Snyder, Vic (D-AR)

Souder, Mark E. (R-IN) X

Spence, Floyd (R-SC)

Spratt, John M., Jr. (D-SC)

Stabenow, Debbie (D-MI) + X

Stark, Fortney Pete (D-CA) +

Stearns, Cliff (R-FL) X

Stenholm, Charles W. (D-TX)

Strickland, Ted (D-OH)

Stump, Bob (R-AZ) X

Stupak, Bart (D-MI) X

Sununu, John E. (R-NH) + +

Sweeney, John E. (R-NY) X X

Talent, James M. (R-MO) X

Tancredo, Thomas G. (R-CO) X X

Tanner, John S. (D-TN)

Tauscher, Ellen O. (D-CA) X

Tauzin, W. J. (Billy) (R-LA)

Taylor, Charles H. (R-NC)

Taylor, Gene (D-MS)

Terry, Lee (R-NE) X

Thomas, William M. (R-CA)

Thompson, Bennie G. (D-MS) X

Thompson, Mike (D-CA)

Thornberry, Mac (R-TX)

Thune, John R. (R-SD)

Thurman, Karen L. (D-FL)

Tiahrt, Todd (R-KS) X X

Tierney, John F. (D-MA) X

Toomey, Patrick J. (R-PA)

Towns, Edolphus (D-NY)

Traficant, James A., Jr. (D-OH)

Turner, Jim (D-TX) X X

Udall, Mark (D-CO) +

Udall, Tom (D-NM)

Underwood, Robert A. (D-GU)

Upton, Fred (R-MI)

Velázquez, Nydia M. (D-NY)

Vento, Bruce F. (D-MN) X

Visclosky, Peter J. (D-IN)

Vitter, David (R-LA)

Walden, Greg (R-OR) X

Walsh, James T. (R-NY)

Wamp, Zach (R-TN) X

Waters, Maxine (D-CA) + +

Watkins, Wes (R-OK)

Watt, Melvin L. (D-NC) + +

Watts, J. C., Jr. (R-OK) X X

Waxman, Henry A. (D-CA) X X

Weiner, Anthony D. (D-NY) X X X

Weldon, Curt (R-PA)

Weldon, Dave (R-FL) X

Weller, Jerry (R-IL) X

Wexler, Robert (D-FL) X X

Weygand, Robert A. (D-RI) X

Whitfield, Ed (R-KY)

Wicker, Roger F. (R-MS) X

Wilson, Heather (R-NM)

Wise, Robert E., Jr. (D-WV)

Wolf, Frank R. (R-VA)

Woolsey, Lynn C. (D-CA)

Wu, David (D-OR)

Wynn, Albert Russell (D-MD)

Young, C. W. Bill (R-FL)

Young, Don (R-AK)

SENATORS: Positives

A B C D E F

Abraham, Spencer (R-MI) + + +

Akaka, Daniel (D-HI) +

Allard, Wayne (R-CO) +

Ashcroft, John (R-MO) + X

Baucus, Max (D-MT) +

Bayh, Evan (D-IN)

Bennett, Robert (R-UT) +

Biden Jr, Joseph (D-DE) +

Bingaman, Jeff (D-NM) +

Bond, Christopher (R-MO) +

Boxer, Barbara (D-CA)

Breaux, John (D-LA) +

Brownback, Sam (R-KS) + X X

Bryan, Richard (D-NV) + +

Bunning, Jim (R-KY) +

Burns, Conrad (R-MT) +

Byrd, Robert (D-WV) + + +

Campbell, Ben Nighthorse (R-CO)

Chafee, Lincoln (R-RI) + + +

Cleland, Max (D-GA)

Cochran, Thad (R-MS) +

Collins, Susan (R-ME)

Conrad, Kent (D-ND) +

Coverdell, Paul (R-GA) +

Craig, Larry (R-ID) + + +

Crapo, Mike (R-ID) +

Daschle, Thomas (D-SD)

DeWine, Mike (R-OH) +

Dodd, Christopher (D-CT) +

Domenici, Pete (R-NM) +

Dorgan, Byron (D-ND)

Durbin, Richard (D-IL)

Edwards, John (D-NC)

Enzi, Mike (R-WY) + +

Feingold, Russell (D-WI)

Feinstein, Dianne (D-CA) + X

Fitzgerald, Peter (R-IL) X

Frist, William (R-TN) +

Gorton, Slade (R-WA)

Graham, Bob (D-FL) +

Gramm, Phil (R-TX) +

Grams, Rod (R-MN) + X

Grassley, Chuck (R-IA) + X

Gregg, Judd (R-NH) +

Hagel, Charles (R-NE) + +

Harkin, Tom (D-IA)

Hatch, Orrin (R-UT)

Helms, Jesse (R-NC) +

Hollings, Ernest (D-SC) +

Hutchinson, Tim (R-AR) +

Hutchison, Kay Bailey (R-TX) +

Inhofe, James (R-OK) +

Inouye, Daniel (D-HI) +

Jeffords, James (R-VT) + +

Johnson, Tim (D-SD)

Kennedy, Edward (D-MA) X

Kerrey, Robert (D-NE) +

Kerry, John (D-MA) +

Kohl, Herb (D-WI) + X

Kyl, Jon (R-AZ) + X

Landrieu, Mary (D-LA) +

Lautenberg, Frank (D-NJ) + X

Leahy, Patrick (D-VT) + + +

Levin, Carl (D-MI)

Lieberman, Joseph (D-CT) + + X

Lincoln, Blanche (D-AR)

Lott, Trent (R-MS) +

Lugar, Richard (R-IN) + +

Mack, Connie (R-FL) X X

McCain, John (R-AZ) +

McConnell, Mitch (R-KY) +

Mikulski, Barbara (D-MD)

Moynihan, Daniel (D-NY) + X

Murkowski, Frank (R-AK) +

Murray, Patty (D-WA)

Nickles, Don (R-OK) +

Reed, Jack (D-RI)

Reid, Harry (D-NV)

Robb, Charles (D-VA) + +

Roberts, Pat (R-KS) +

Rockefeller IV, John (D-WV)

Roth Jr, William (R-DE)

Santorum, Rick (R-PA) X

Sarbanes, Paul (D-MD)

Schumer, Charles (D-NY) X

Sessions, Jeff (R-AL) +

Shelby, Richard (R-AL) +

Smith, Bob (R-NH) +

Smith, Gordon (R-OR) X

Snowe, Olympia (R-ME)

Specter, Arlen (R-PA) X X

Stevens, Ted (R-AK)

Thomas, Craig (R-WY) + +

Thompson, Fred (R-TN) + +

Thurmond, Strom (R-SC) + + +

Torricelli, Robert (D-NJ) X

Voinovich, George (R-OH)

Warner, John (R-VA) + +

Wellstone, Paul (D-MN) + + +

Wyden, Ron (D-OR)